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SAMPLE ARTICLES FROM
THE AVICULTURAL JOURNAL


Contents:
Toxic Plants
Creating A Trust for Your Parrot


TOXIC PLANTS

Submitted by Barb Tagg (The Avicultural Journal 1999, Vol. 22. #3)

The following is a list of potentially toxic plants to birds. Spp. means subspecis.

Acokanthera - Acokanthera
Amaryllis - Amarvllis spp.
Angel 's Trumpet - Datura spp.
Apricot - Prunus armeniaca (leaves, pits & bark)
Apple - Malus spp. (seeds leaves & bark)
Avocado - Persea americana
Azalea - Rhododendron canadensis
Balsam Pear, Bitter Melon Momordica charantia
Baneberry - Actaea rubra, Pachypoda
Belladonna - Atropa belladonna
Bird of Paradise -Poinciana & related spp. (seed pods & flowers)
Bittersweet - Celastrus spp.
Black Locust - Robinia pseudo-acacia
Boxwood - Buxus spp.
Bracken Fern - Pteridium aquilinum
Buckthorn - Karwinskia humboldtiana & related spp.
Burdock - Arctium spp.
Buttercup - Ranunculus spp.
Caladium - Caladium spp.
Calla Lily - Zantedeschia aethiopica
Catclaw Acacia - Acacia greggii
Caster Bean - Ricinus communis
Cherry - Prunus spp. (pits, leaves & bark)
Chinaberry - Melia azadarach
Clematis - Clematis montana & related spp.
Coral Plant - Jatropha mutifida
Crocus (autumn) - Cholchicum autumnale
Cycad or Sago Cycas - Cycas revoluta
Daffodil - Narcissus tazetta
Daphne - Daphne mezerum
Death Camas - Zigadenus venenosous & related spp.
Delphinium - Delphinium spp.
Devil 's Ivy - Epipremnum aureum
Dieffenbachia (dumb cane) - Dieffenbachia spp.
Eggplant - Solanum melongena (unripe/over ripe fruit leaves)
Elderbeny - Sambucus mexicana
Elephant's Ears - Colocasia
Euonymus - Euonymus spp.
European Pennyroyal - Mentha pulegium
Figs - Ficus spp. (sap)
Four O'Clock -Mirabilis jalapa
Foxglove - Digitalis purpurea
Heliotrope - Heliotropium spp.
Henbane - Hyoscyamus niger
Holly - Hex aquifolium & related spp. (leaves, berries)
Horse Chestnut - Aesculus hippocastanum & related spp.
Horse Nettle - Solanum carolinense
Hyacinth - Hyacinthus orientalis
Hydrangea- Hydrangea spp.
Iris - Iris spp.
Ivy (Boston, English and some others) - Hedera spp.
Jack-in-the-Pulpit - Arisaema
Jerusalem Cheny - Solanum pseudocapsicum
Jessamme, Yellow-Gelsemium sempervirens (leaves, stems)
Jimsonweed - Datura spp.
Jonquil - Narcissus jonquilla
Juniper - Juniperus spp.
Lantana - Lanlana camara
Larkspur - Delphinium spp.
Laurel - Kalmia spp.
Lily-of-the-Valley - Convalleria majalis
Lobella - Lobelia spp.
Locoweed -Astragalus spp. & Oxytropis spp.
Lupine - Lupinus spp.
Marijuana - Cannabis sativa
Milkweed - Asclepias spp.
Mistletoe - Phoradendron villosum
Mock Orange - Philadelphus
Moonseed - Menispermum canadense
Monkshood - Aconitum spp.
Morning Glory - Ipomoea violacea (seeds)
Mushrooms - Amanita spp. & many others
Narcissus - Narcissus spp.
Oak - Quercus spp.(?????)
Oleander - Nerium oleander
Peach (leaves, pits. bark)
Pear (leaves, pits. bark)
Peony - Paeonia officinalis
Periwinkle - Vinca minor, Vinca rosea
Peyote - Lophophora williamsii
Philodendron - Philodendron & Monstera spp.
Pigweed - Amaranthus spp.
Plum (leaves, pits, bark)
Poison Hemlock - Conium maculatum
Poison Ivy
Poison Oak
Poison Sumac - Rhux vernix
Poinsettia
Poppy - Papaver somniferum
Pokeweed - Phytolacca americana
Potato (sprouts, leaves, berries & green tubers)
Pothos - Eprimemnun aureum
Primrose - Primula spp.
Privet - Lipstrum vulgare
Ragwort - Senecio jacobea
Red Maple - Acer rubrum
Rhododendron - Rhododendron
Rhubarb (leaves)
Rosary Pea - Abrus precatorius
Sage - Salvia officinalis
Shamrock Plant - Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens, Oxalis acetosella
Skunk Cabbage - Svmplocarpus foetidus
Snowdrop - Galanthus nivalis
Sorrel - Rumex, Oxalis spp.
Spurges - Euphorbia spp.
Star of Bethlehem - Ornithogalm umbellatum
Sweet Pea - Lathyrus odoratus
Tabacco - Nicotiania
Tomato (stems, leaves)
Tulip - Tulipa spp.
Virgirnia Creeper
Vetches - Vicia spp.
Water Hemlock - Cicuta
Waxberry - Symphoricarpos
Wisteria- Wisteria spp.
Yew - Taxus spp.

The following is a list of some nontoxic plants to birds. Spp. means subspecis.

Abelia - Abelia spp.
Acacia (some species) - Acacia
African Daisy - Arctotis stoechadiflolia
African Violet - Saintpaulina spp.
Aluminum Plant - Pilea cadierei
Aloe Aloe spp. (flesh only)
Aralia - Aralia spp.
Arbutus - Arbutus spp.
Areca, Butterfly Cane - Areca lutescens
Ash - Fraximus spp.
Asparagus Fern - Asparagus densiflorus
Aspen - Populus spp.
Baby's Tears - Helxine soleirolli
Baby' s Breath - Gypsophila paniculata
Bachelor Buttons - Centaurea cyanus
Barberry - Berberis spp.
Beech - Fagus, Nothofagus
Begonia - Begonia spp.
Birch - Betula spp.
Bird' s Nest Fern Asplenium nidus
Blood leaf Plant - Iresine herbstti
Boston Fern - Nephrolepsis bostoniensis
Bougainvillea - Bougainvillea spp.
Brake, Ribbon, Dish Pteris cretica
Bromeliads - Anans comosus
California Holly - Heteromeles arbutifloia
Calamint - Calamintha spp.
Calendula (Pot Marigold) - Calendula officinalis
Camellia - Camellia spp.
Chamomile - Chamaemelum nobile
Chickweed - Cerastium vulgatum stelleria media
Chicory - Cichorium intybus
Cissus Kangaroo Vines - Cissus
Claw Cactus - Schlumbergera truncata
Coffee Tree - Coffea arabica (coffee is toxic)
Coleus - Coleus blumei
Comfrey - Symphytum
Corn Plant - Dracaena fragrans
Cottonwood - Populus spp.
Crabapple (fruit only)
Creeping Jenny - Lysimachia
Croton (houseplant) - Codiaeum variegatum
Dahlia- Dahlia spp.
Dandelion
Date - Phoenix dactylifera
Daylily - Hemerocallis spp.
Dill - Anethum graveolen
Dogwood - Cornus spp.
Donkey Tail - Sedum morganianum
Dracaena - Dracaena spp.
Dragon Tree - Dracaena draco
Easter Cactus - Rhipsalidopsis
Elderberry - Sambucus spp. (cooked ripe fruit only)
Elm - Ulmus spp.
European Fan - Chamaerops humilis
Fir - Abies spp.
Gold dust Dracaena - Dracaena godseffiana
Echeveria - Echeveria spp.
Elephant Foot Tree Beaucarnea recurvata Eucalyptus
Eugenia - Eugenia
Gardenia- G. jasmmoides
Garlic
Gloxinia - Sinningia speciosa
Grape Ivy - Cissus rhombifolia
Grape Vine - Vitis spp.
Hens & Chicks - Echeveria & Sempervivum spp.
Hibiscus - H. rosa-sinensis
Honeysuckle - Lonicera spp.
Hoya - Hoya spp.
Impatiens
Indian Hawthorne - Rhaphiolepsis
Jade Plant - Crassula ovata
Kalanchoe - K. blossfeldiana
Larch - Larix spp.
Lemon Balm - Melissa oficinalis
Lilac
Lily (Easter or Tiger) - Lilium
Magnolia
Marigold - Tagetes spp.
Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum
Manzanita - Arctostapylos M.
Mayapple - Podophyllum peltatum
Monkey Plant - Ruellia spp.
Moses-in-the-Cradle - Rhoeo spathacea
Mother-ln-Law' s Tongue Sansevieria trifasciata
Nandina - N. domestica
Nasturtium- Tropaeolum majus
Natal Plum - Carissa macrocarpa
Nerve Plant - Fittonia verschaffeltii
Norfolk Island Pine - Araucaria excelsa
Parsley
Passionflower - Passiflora caerulea
Peppermint - Mentha x piperita
Peperomia - Peperomia spp.
Petunia
Pony Tail Palm - Beaucarnea recurvata
Popular
Prayer Plant - Maranta leuconeura
Purple Passion, Purple Velvet Gynura aurantiaca
Pyracantha - Pyracantha spp.
Raphiolepsis - Raphiolepsis spp.
Rose
Rubber Plant - Ficus elastica
Russian Olive - Elaeagnus augustifolia
Schefflera - S. actinophylla
Sensitive Plant - Mimosa pudica
Spearmint - Mentha spicata
Spider Plant
Spruce
Star Jasmine Trachelospermum jasminoides
String of Beads - Senecio rowleyanus
Swedish Ivy - Plectranthus
Sword Fern - Nephrolepis exaltata
Thistle
Ti Plant - Cordyline terminalis
Violet - Viola spp.
Wandering Jew - Tradescantia fluminensis
Willow - Salix spp.
Yucca

Reproduced from The Parrot Post, August 1999, published by the Parrot Club of Manitoba with thanks.
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